10 Causes of Osteoporosis in Women and the Elderly
Osteoporosis is a type of disease disorder that usually drags on bone organs that cause the organ to become weak and fragile. Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bones does not follow the removal of old bones. As we know that bone is a network that lives continuously and has to undergo alternation.
When the condition is fragile and has decreased function when the bones get light pressure such as when bending or coughing can cause the risk of fractures. Fractures due to osteoporosis most often occur in the hips, wrists or spine.
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Symptoms of Osteoporosis
In general, there are no symptoms at the beginning of this bone loss. But when someone has been diagnosed with osteoporosis, the symptoms are likely to occur as follows:
- Pain in the back caused by a broken spine
- Loss of height from time to time, this is caused by the stooping posture
- Bone fractures occur much more easily than expected
Most people reach the peak of their bone mass in their early 20s. As we age, bone mass will decrease and new bone will form.
The possibility of someone developing osteoporosis depends on how much bone mass is at a young age. The higher the peak of bone mass, the more bones you have and the less likely it is to develop osteoporosis as you age.
Causes of Osteoporosis
A number of trusted factors can increase the likelihood of developing osteoporosis, including age, race, lifestyle, and medical conditions. Some of the risk factors for osteoporosis include:
Osteoporosis can affect men and women of all races. However, this can be a higher risk in women and is higher in white and Asian women, especially older women who pass menopause.
The more the age increases, the greater the risk of developing osteoporosis. Old women who have passed menopause experience this disorder more often.
Women of white descent and women who have Asian races have a greater risk of osteoporosis. This is because generally women from white and Asian races have low consumption of foods containing calcium. One reason is lactose intolerance and avoiding products from animals.
- Heredity Factors
If you have parents or siblings with a history of osteoporosis, this will put yourself at greater risk of experiencing this disorder, especially if the mother or father has had a hip fracture.
- Body Size
Men and women who have small body shapes tend to have a higher risk of osteoporosis. This is because they have less bone mass as they age.
- Levels of Hormones
Osteoporosis is more common, often due to hormonal balance. The body can have too many or too few specific hormones in their body, such as:
- The decrease in sex hormones, then this will lead to a tendency to weaken bones. Decreasing estrogen levels when women experience menopause is one of the strongest risk factors for developing osteoporosis. Women can also experience a decrease in estrogen during certain cancer treatments. Men experience a gradual decline in testosterone levels as they age. In addition, some treatments for prostate cancer also have the potential to reduce testosterone levels in men.
- Too much thyroid hormone can also cause bone loss. This can happen if the thyroid is overactive, or when someone consumes too much thyroid hormone medication to treat an underactive thyroid.
- Osteoporosis has also been associated with overactive parathyroid and adrenal glands.
- Food factors
Food consumption factors are one of the factors that influence the occurrence of osteoporosis disorders, those who are more likely to be affected by this disorder include:
- Someone who has low calcium intake. Lack of calcium has a major role in the development of osteoporosis. Low calcium intake contributes to reduced bone density, earlier bone loss, and increased risk of fractures. In addition, consuming red meat and soft drinks where both contain lots of phosphorus which can stimulate the formation of parathyroid hormones. The cause of the release of calcium from the blood is also indicated as a trigger for osteoporosis.
- Someone who experiences eating disorders. People who suffer from anorexia are at a high risk of osteoporosis. Low food intake can reduce the number of calories, foods that contain protein and calcium in the body. In women, anorexia can stop menstruation, and cause bones to become weak. In men, anorexia lowers the number of sex hormones in the body and can weaken bones.
- Gastrointestinal Surgery
Someone who has just undergone gastrointestinal surgery will experience a decrease in stomach size due to the removal of parts of the intestine that limit the absorption of nutrients, including calcium. Absorption of calcium which is lacking by organs can cause the cause of osteoporosis.
- Use of Drugs
Long-term use of drugs, both oral and injectable, such as prednisone and cortisone, can interfere with the bone building process. Osteoporosis can also be caused by the use of drugs used to combat or prevent various types of diseases such as seizures, gastric reflux, cancer, and transplant rejection.
Some lifestyle choices also have the potential to increase the risk of osteoporosis disorders, such as:
- People who spend more time sitting, have a higher risk of osteoporosis than those who are more active. Healthy lifestyles such as activities or weight-bearing exercises can promote good balance and posture that is beneficial to bones. Examples of walking, running, jumping, dancing and weight lifting.
- The danger of alcohol for someone who has a habit of consuming excessive alcohol can also increase the risk of osteoporosis.
- A person who is active in consuming nicotine such as active smokers can also develop osteoporosis risk. The danger of smoking in the use of tobacco contributes to bone weakness.
- Someone who routinely consumes caffeine such as coffee or tea also has the potential to develop osteoporosis. According to Robert Heany and Dr. Karen Rafferty of the Creighton University Osteoporosis Research Center in Nebraska, states that consuming caffeinated beverages can trigger a risk of bone loss. Caffeine drinker urine contains more calcium from the process of bone formation. In addition, the danger of caffeine has toxin properties that can inhibit the process of bone mass formation (osteoblasts).
- The use of drugs, a healthy diet, and weight training can help prevent bone loss and strengthen bones that are already weak.
Osteoporosis Prevention Steps
Three important factors for keeping bones healthy throughout life are:
Men and women aged between 18 – 50 years need approximately 1,000 milligrams of calcium per day. The number of daily nutrient requirements for calcium increased to 1,200 milligrams when the woman’s age reached 50 years and men’s age reached 70 years. Some good sources of calcium include products:
- Low-fat milk
- Dark green leafy vegetables
- Canned salmon or sardines with bones
- Soy products (such as tofu, tempeh, and soy milk), cereals
- Fruits that contain calcium such as oranges
You can also get calcium intake from some supplement products. However, too much calcium can cause heart problems and kidney stones. The Institute of Medicine recommends total calcium intake for people older than 50 years should not be more than 2,000 milligrams per day.
- Vitamin D
Vitamin D functions to increase the body’s ability to absorb calcium. Sunlight is one source of vitamin D that is good for the body, except for those who live in the highlands. Not yet known the optimal daily dose for vitamin D. For adults, you should consume between 600 – 800 IU per day, through food or supplements.
- Physical Exercise
Exercise can help the body to build strong bones and slow bone loss. Combine strength training with weight-bearing exercises. Exercise can help strengthen the muscles and bones of the upper arm and spine. Physical exercise such as:
- Climb stairs
- Jump rope